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An electrum stater would thus be readily exchangeable for ten silver pieces of its own weight. 15.] The motives of the two last described coins are remarkable; that of the stater resembles the Lion-gate of Mycenae and some early Phrygian monuments of the ninth and eighth centuries B. Electrum coins are known of the following maximum weights: Euboc, 269 grs. (stater); Babylonic, 167 grs.; Phocac, 254- 248 grs.; Phoenician, 220-215 grs.; Aeginetic (? Halves, Thirds, Sixths, Twelfths, Twenty-fourths, Forty-eighths, and even Ninety-sixths, of the stater are also met with, but the Hecte or Sixth was the denomination which was in most common use. 310), and for numerous divisions of the staters mostly of Lydian origin, though found at Ephesus, see Brit. Those which from their types seem to belong to the coasts of Asia Minor will be noted under the towns to which they are here conjecturally attributed. The Ionian towns, though politically independent of one another, constituted for religious purposes a koinon or League, the meetings of which were held originally in the Panionion in the neighbourhood of Priene, where stood a temple of Poseidon and a sacred grove. The coins struck for this Festival in the time of Ant. These beautiful coins usually bear magistrates’ names in the nom. It is possible that they may be the signets of magistrates; see Macdonald, Coin Types, p. With regard to the attribution of this primitive stater see infra, under Lydia (Fig. There are also a number of silver coins of archaic times of various standards of weight. The engravers of these coins must have been really great artists, for they have, without any elaboration, and with a bold simplicity of touch, produced, within the small circle of a coin, masterpieces in mezzo-rilievo. For varieties with various magistrates’ names see Imhoof, Kl. The bronze coins, the currency of which was more limited, are of a more strictly local and municipal character, and they usually bear the signature of the eponymous magistrate in the nom. Reverse types: Horseman; Asklepios; Owl; Athena; Ram; Kybele standing between lions; ΑΝΑΞΑ Bust of Anaxagoras (Hunter Cat., ii. 2, with the Ephesian Bee in the field); (β) of didrachms and drachms of reduced Rhodian weight (102 and 50 grs.); In B. 202 Aradus in Phoenicia began to strike Alexandrine tetra- drachms (Mller, Cl. Similar coins without dates began to be issued at Ephesus about the same time. The date and the early style of this cistophorus make it quite impossible to identify the magistrate whose name it bears with CASINCF (Gallus), Proconsul of Asia in B.
3, 8); Demeter standing; ЄΙΡΗΝΗ standing (Mion., iii. The earliest issues however belong to the old city. The usual symbols of the cultus of this nature-goddess are the Bee and the Stag, and it is noteworthy that the high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called . Among other cities Ephesus and Samos are mentioned as having then shaken off the Spartan yoke. 394, or possibly a little earlier, the issue of the long series of tetradrachms of Rhodian weight (236 grs.) which lasted for no less than a century. Fronto, Asiarch and Archiereus of the thirteen cities, bear no city name. Pius.-Hades in quadriga carrying off Persephone, Eros with torch driving the horses (B. The coins of Rhodes and Clazomenae are particularly remarkable as the finest examples of the full-face type of Apollo. The swan, which is the characteristic reverse-type of the finest coins of Clazomenae, is one of the many symbols of Apollo, and it has been suggested that the name of Clazomenae may have been derived from the plaintive notes of these birds (, cf. Thus the gold staters of Philip’s types, issued at the Clazomenian mint, are distin- guished by a local mint-mark, the forepart of a winged boar (Mller, 309), as are also tetradrachms of the Alexandrine types, some of which have, as mint-mark, the forepart of a ram or a ram’s head (Mller, 995-998). Chief types: ΡΩΜΗ and CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC Busts face to face; ΚΛΑΖΟΜЄΝΗ Bust of city; ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ ΚΤΙΣΤΗΣ Head of Augustus; ΘΕΑ ΛΙΒΙΑ Bust of Livia. 16); Demeter in serpent-car, with torch in each hand (ibid.); Herakles giving his hand to Iolaos (Bibl. Aurelius Caes.—Temple of Artemis Ephesia (Milan); Tyche standing (Mion., iii. The more important cities on the west coast of Asia Minor now began to strike money in great abundance, and some of them, such as Lampsacus, Rhodes, Clazomenae, &c., even issued gold coins for special requirements, probably in time of war. In addition to the above-described autonomous coins, there are silver pieces with the winged boar on the reverse which bear the name of Orontas, who was satrap of the Hellespont, B. After the defeat of Antiochus at Magnesia, the regal coinage, just referred to, began itself to assume local characteristics. [British Museum Catalogue of Greek Coins, Ionia, by B. Head, 1892; Babelon, Trait des Monnaies grecques et romaines, ii. Gold and silver, which from time immemorial had been the universal media of exchange, had no real need of such warrants. 321 sqq.; Imhoof- Blumer, Kleinasiatische Mnzen, i. 49 sqq.] There can be little doubt that in the seventh century B. the Greek cities on the Ionian coast adopted the Lydian invention of coining money, i. of stamping the precious metals with marks or types as guarantees of fixed values. The bronze coins of this period have usually helmeted heads of Athena in profile or facing, and on the reverses a ram’s head or a ram recumbent or standing (B.